Ancient Greater Syria History

As a result of the ongoing civil war, an alternative government was formed by the opposition umbrella group, the Syrian National Coalition, in March 2012. Representatives of this government were invited to take up Syria’s seat at the Arab League on 28 March 2013. The opposition coalition has been recognised as the “sole representative of the Syrian people” by several nations including the United States, United Kingdom and France.


Since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture (known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period (PPNB) is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gyps and burnt lime (Vaiselles blanches). Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic and Bronze Age. Archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth.


At one time in history, Syria (also known as Greater Syria) covered a much larger area geographically than it does today. In ancient times, Greater Syria encompassed the modern day country, as well as Israel, parts of Jordan, Kurdistan, Israel, and Palestinian territories. It connected three continents as a crossroads of the Caspian Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Black Sea, and the Nile River.
Around the excavated city of Ebla which is near present day Idlib in northern Syria, a great Semitic empire spread from the Red Sea north to Anatolia and east to Iraq from 2500 to 2400 BC. Ebla appears to have been founded around 3000 BC, and gradually built its empire through trade with the cities of Sumer and Akkad, as well as with peoples to the northwest. Gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Ebla’s contact with Egypt. Scholars believe the language of Ebla to be among the oldest known written Semitic languages, designated as Paleo-Canaanite.


The command of the Sixth Fleet previously decided to leave the region destroyer ” Mahan ” , which expired on duty and that was the plan back to the base in Norfolk. So now in the Mediterranean Sea are four U.S. warships equipped with cruise missiles. This destroyers ” Mahan “, ” Greyvli ” Barry “and” Reymidzh . ” On August 18 in the Arabian Sea arrived group of ships in the USS ” Harry Truman ” missile cruisers ” Gettysburg ” and” San Jacinto , ” destroyers ” Bulkeley ” and ” Mason .” in addition to them , in the area are ” Nimitz ” and a group of support ships .

Said on Tuesday the head of the Pentagon’s Chuck Hagel , U.S. armed forces are ready to strike on Syria , if such an order would give President Barack Obama . “We have transferred power to the field to perform properly any option / action / who chooses the president ,” – said the Pentagon chief told BBC BBC. On the question of whether the sun states are ready to use force against Syria , Chuck Hagel said , “Yes, we are ready to start out that way .”

Obama himself said on Wednesday that it has not yet taken a decision on the possible use of military force against Syria. However, it is clear from his words implied that it is an option favored by the United States. According to the president , a possible military action could serve as a warning signal to Assad about the inadmissibility of the further use of chemical weapons. “If we say clearly and decisively, but at the same time in a very strictly limited framework , guiding / Assad / alarm that say ” enough to do ” / use chemical weapons / – then it can have a positive impact on our national security in the long term , “- Obama said in an interview on public television Pee -PBS .


Probably the most popular question in the last few days – will there be a blow to Syria? You can, of course, to think that they would like – long b done . And that is 2 and a half years that scare us , but Assad is like a rock.

But it will be . Not least because it is written there Pushkov , USA have gone too far in his statements to give back up. Moreover, the ” small victorious voynushka ” against “terrorists” are now very essential to Obama on the background of internal scandals and revelations in the states.

But they went there for a reason , that is no accident. This is what everything was going all these months of the Civil War , when it seemed that Assad is doomed, like Gaddafi , is that he still hold out for a while . It turned suddenly that Assad can not only hold out for a while, but to win , that would negate all the efforts of the Americans to rebuild the new face of the Middle East, was born as a result of the “Arab Spring ,” by itself. Even if they do not win, and hold out for some time , it is ” some time ” – the years that are in any case not in favor of Washington strategists that can erase them so through suffering scenario. However , Assad has already crossed them . A final touch added the Egyptian military , which put an end to the rule of the Islamists.

However, more recent classifications of the Eblaite language have shown that it was an East Semitic language, closely related to the Akkadian language. The Eblan civilization was likely conquered by Sargon of Akkad around 2260 BC; the city was restored, as the nation of the Amorites, a few centuries later, and flourished through the early second millennium BC until conquered by the Hittites.

Due to its prime location among growing cultures and economies, it was a busy portal for trade and dealings for the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Anatolians, and Aegeans. Much of this trade activity was controlled by the city of Elba, an ancient Syrian kingdom in the mountains.


During the second millennium BC, Syria was occupied successively by Canaanites, Phoenicians, and Arameans as part of the general disruptions and exchanges associated with the Sea Peoples. The Phoenicians settled along the coast of Northern Canaan (Lebanon). Egyptians, Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians and Hittites variously occupied the strategic ground of Syria during this period; the land between their various empires being marsh.

Eventually, the Persians took Syria as part of their hegemony of Southwest Asia; this dominion was transferred to the Ancient Macedonians and Greeks after Alexander the Great’s conquests and the Seleucid Empire. Pompey the Great captured Antioch in 64 BC, turning Syria into a Roman province. Thus control of this region passed to the Romans and then the Byzantines.

The population of Syria during the heyday of the empire was probably not exceeded again until the 19th century. Syria’s large and prosperous population made Syria one of the most important of the Roman provinces, particularly during the 2nd and 3rd centuries


The Roman Emperor Alexander Severus, who was emperor from 222 to 235, was Syrian. His cousin Elagabalus, who was emperor from 218 to 222, was also Syrian and his family held hereditary rights to the high priesthood of the sun god El-Gabal at Emesa (modern Homs) in Syria. Another Roman emperor who was a Syrian was Philip the Arab (Marcus Julius Philippus), emperor from 244 to 249.

Syria is significant in the history of Christianity; Saulus of Tarsus, better known as the Apostle Paul, was converted on the Road to Damascus and emerged as a significant figure in the Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria, from which he left on many of his missionary journeys.

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