Kronotsky Nature Reserve

Kronotsky Nature Reserve (also: Kronotsky Biosphere Zapovednik) is a nature area reserved for the study of natural sciences in the remote Russian Far East, on the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. It was created in 1934 and its current boundary contains an area of 10,990 km2 (4,240 sq mi). It also has Russia’s only geyser basin, plus several mountain ranges with numerous volcanoes, both active and extinct, including Eurasia’s highest active volcano Klyuchevskaya Sopka (Kliuchevskoi Sopka), which rises to a peak height of 4,750 m (15,584 feet). Due to its often harsh climate and its mix of volcanoes and geysers, it is frequently described as the Land of Fire and Ice.

It is mainly accessible only to scientists, plus approximately 3,000 tourists annually who pay a fee equivalent to US$700 to travel by helicopter for a single day’s visit. Kronotsky Nature Reserve has been proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

River Valley Hot Spring.

FSBI “Kronotsky Nature Reserve” – ​​Federal environmental, scientific research and environmental education institution under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation.
“The said forest at Kamchadals kept as reserve, so that none of them of not only cut, but does not dare to touch, because they are sure of their old tradition, which many of them are examples of states that everyone who would not dare to touch them, calamitous death ends “- this is in the middle of the 18th century, wrote about the only fir grove Kamchatka Peninsula famous explorer Stepan Krasheninnikov. Itelmen let nobody come near to the mysterious island conifer in the south-east of Kamchatka, an area of ​​2 dozen hectares. Then it was, of course, only the “father” of Kronotsky, the first spontaneous reserve these parts, secured a national custom. After nearly three centuries of Russian scientists have not figured out how graceful fir (Kamchatka) came to this region – the trees could drop the ancient mariners, and maybe that is the only coniferous trees in Kamchatka from the Ice Age.

The next era for the area opened in 1882. A special commission under the military governor of the Maritime region Major General Joseph Gavrilovic Baranov, on the initiative of an outstanding researcher of the Far East, Tadeusz Yanovich Benedict Dybowski, approved the draft 2 reserve in Kamchatka: Kronotsky east Asachinskoe Peninsula and in the South. State inspection was not yet, reserves guarded themselves hunters from nearby villages. At the time, the irregularity of well compensated sanctioned. Up to cruel lynching “predators” – so aptly locals called poachers. And cases of imposition of capital known! The main task of the new protected areas have been saved sable, almost knocked hunters “soft gold.” The population of valuable fur-bearing animal in decades recovered handsome sable and still thrives in the reserve.

The third, and perhaps the most important page of the history of the reserve: November 1, 1934 the then government – the All Kronotsky included in the general system of nature reserves and appointed permanent funding from the state budget. 1951 and 1961 were years of anxiety, black: Reserve closed. But every time Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve, like the legendary phoenix, reborn again, while still increasing its area. While recent advances have territorial annexation Lazo area and adjacent lands Kronotskoe three-mile Pacific Ocean. The latter was done to protect marine mammals and birds.

An intriguing fact is that although in general the representation Kronotsky Reserve has become almost synonymous with the geyser valley, founded it, when this natural phenomenon no one suspected! Since the area of ​​giving official status to outstanding discovery twentieth century was seven years … Honor erase one of the last blank spots on the globe had the geologist Tatyana Ivanovna Ustinova. April 14, 1941, accompanied by her guide Anisifora Krupenina Pavlovich opened the first geyser, later called the firstborn. On 25 July this year, the same persistent researchers first went down to the soaring canyon. Unlike other geyser fields of the world’s smallest Kronotskaya Valley: the area of ​​4 square kilometers splashing, hissing, seething and bubbling hot pulsating several hundred springs and geysers. They surprised the audience on a bare plateau, all embedded in the geothermal wonders blooming slopes of the canyon. The largest geysers – it Grotto and Giant, they emit up to 60 tons of boiling water. There are only five major geyser areas: this valley (of in-Iceland), Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA), North Island (New Zealand), the Valley of Geysers (Kamchatka, Russia) and El Tatio (Atacama Desert, Chile).

After a natural disaster, June 3, 2007 The Valley of Geysers has not lost its former glory: Stop the run stilled “wave” rock avalanche given, along with remaining geysers and mud pots, unique corner Kronotsky Reserve more “Kamchatka” rampant, wanton look.

Death Valley – the site with the ominous name at the foot of the mighty volcano Kikhpinych, a 7-km from the award-winning “Miracle of Russia”, the Valley of Geysers. This natural “gas chamber”, where each year are killed dozens of animals and birds. The composition of the poisonous gas fatal cocktail Kamchatka Valley is unique in the world.

And just 15 kilometers from the Kronotsky geyser valley is another exceptional natural object – an extinct volcano caldera caldera. Giant self-destructed a series of explosive eruptions, but after 40 thousand years the land is still hot, unpredictable and capricious. On 9/12 and not always boils square kilometers of the caldera, as if by the will of a mad alchemist, constantly seething, hissing and mixed unimaginable chemical cocktails. On Uzon heroes “Sannikov Land” (natural shooting for this sci-fi movie made it here!) Would have found not only the coveted gold and antimony, arsenic, the youngest in the world oil prices, and a mineral here caldera. Place to relax in the caldera of this site in mud pots. Best Artist and Sculptor, produce a hypnotic effect. For scientists, the planet caldera area of ​​interest as active and ore mineralization.

Fire-breathing volcanoes – another symbol Kronotsky reserve. Of the 25 volcanoes, 8 – acting! Down on the “neighbors” looks Kronotsky Volcano, with an altitude 3528 m above sea level. The top of the giant often spins around in a cloud of strange rings and spirals, but a reflection of the hill lies the waters deep, Kronotsky lake. Krasheninnikov Volcano – home to a population of bighorn sheep. In Kamchatka, the animals are still in the list of fishing and trophy, while the views are almost exterminated. Since December 2010, the reserve is a powerful and beautiful feyericheski eruption Kizima. This volcano was sleeping 80 years, but now pours its slopes hot lava and ash falls asleep neighborhood and volcanic bombs.

Numerous large glaciers and snowfields on volcanoes are a tourist attraction Kronotsky reserve. Snow that accumulates in large quantities in the mountain area, for a short cool summers often does not have time to melt. In some years, the area of ​​snowfields and glaciers are as high as 14 000 hectares (1.4% of the protected area). The largest of them – Tyushevskii – has a length 5.9 km and the area of ​​10.2 km ².

The northern boundary of the Kronotsky reserve is about 55 ˚ N, that is just south of the latitude of Moscow. But these values ​​are deceptive: the climate is much more severe. In mountainous areas, the average annual temperature ranges from – 2.5 to – 5 ˚, snow falls in the mid-to late October, and goes to the end of May. The average annual rainfall is 1188 mm. Landscape diversity Kronotsky reserve closest to the Beringian tundra – with the only caveat that it represents the southern version of it, enriched with forest vegetation.

In the Kronotsky reserve, as in the rest of Kamchatka, typically not found taiga species, such as squirrel, flying squirrel, musk deer, and many beetles, in its development related to conifers. The reason is proximity of the ocean and geographic isolation. But at the same plant geothermal systems volcanic regions are unique, unique in the scale of Russia and the whole world. It is home to the world’s largest natural protected population of brown bears, up to 800 individuals, the high number of sable, fox, otter and numerous swans and Steller’s sea eagle. Reindeer, formerly widespread throughout Kamchatka, now preserved only here, it’s less than 1000 individuals.

In the mountains of the reserve can meet graceful bighorn sheep. Occur and specific “addition” – in the last century, the fauna Kronotsky enriched squirrel, lynx, mink, muskrat, and moose. Become rare peregrine falcons, golden eagles, merlin, mountain grouse, and a large population of Steller’s sea eagle adorns airspace reserve. Drop and occasional guests – Yellow-billed heron, Japanese crane, Redstart, Black-winged Stilt, hoopoe and others.
In 1996, the Kronotsky Nature Reserve was included in the World Heritage List of natural and cultural significance of UNESCO in the “Volcanoes of Kamchatka”.

Unique natural object Kronotsky Nature Reserve:

Valley of Geysers
Death Valley
Caldera caldera
Fir Grove graceful
Lake Kronotskoye
Larch forest in the basin of Lake Kronotsky
Chazhminskie hot springs
Tyushevskii hot springs
Semyachikskie hot springs
Semyachiksky Lyman
Schapinskie spruce
Glaciers Kronotsky Peninsula

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